What is Uttarayana and Dakshinayana
The angular distance of a heavenly body from the celestial equator will be either negative if the planet is above the northern hemisphere, or positive, in case the planet is above the southern hemisphere. This is also commonly known as a declination or Ayana. Thus the Sun’s yearly movement is divided into two parts, called Uttarayana and Dakshinayana. The earth's equator is tilted 23.45 degrees with respect to the plane of the earth's orbit around the sun, so at various times during the year, as the earth orbits the sun, declination varies from 23.45 degrees north to 23.45 degrees south. This gives rise to the seasons. Around December 21, the northern hemisphere of the earth is tilted 23.45 degrees away from the sun, which is the winter solstice for the northern hemisphere and the summer solstice for the southern hemisphere. Around June 21, the southern hemisphere is tilted 23.45 degrees away from the sun, which is the summer solstice for the northern hemisphere and winter solstice for the southern hemisphere. On March 21 and September 21 are the fall and spring equinoxes when the sun is passing directly over the equator. Note that the tropics of cancer and capricorn mark the maximum declination of the sun in each hemisphere. Each Ayana has three seasons.
The accurate method of knowing when uttarayana or dakshinayana starts is to calculate highest northan and southern declination of the sun. The dates mentioned below in #1 are based on this method. The other method of knowing dakshinaayana is when nirayana surya enters cancers, and uttaraayana starts when nirayana surya enters Capricorn. Actual Ayanagati may not be observed exactly using this method. Most drika panchanga makers donot follow this method. Please remember right now ayanamsha is increasing every year by 50 seconds. Due to this our ritus should shift. But they are not shifting. If we follow nirayana method after some years you'll wrongly mention winter ritu in summer and summer ritu in winter. That is very much inaccurate. The ritu follow declination not nirayana surya.
When does Dakshinayana start in 2009
#1. Druk Siddhanta:
Dakshinayana starts when sayana sun enters cancers, and uttaraayana starts when sayana surya enters Capricorn. We need to use sayana surya in order to observe surya's ayana gati.
Dakshinayana starts at June 21st, 2009 (GMT)
Uttarayana starts at December 22nd,2009 (GMT)
#2. Druk Siddhanta and Nirayana System:
Dakshinaaya starts when nirayana surya enters cancers, and uttaraayana starts when nirayana surya enters Capricorn. Actual Ayanagati may not be observed exactly using this method.
Dakshinayana starts at July 16th, 2008
Uttarayana starts at January, 14th 2010
Note:Which one to use is the personal choice. Some people follow #1 and some follow #2. However samkranti decision is always done using #2 method. It's just Ayana gati and Ritu they donot follow ayanamsha. Sun's Ayana gati is always tropical. Ritus always follow tropical sun, not nirayana sun. However, some people will always make their panchangam using #2 for Dakshinaayana, Uttarayana and Ritu. Most modern panchangam will follow method #1.
Note: To find Rahukalam, Yamagandam, Durmuhurtham, and Gulikai Please click on the panchangam link on your left, and then scroll down to your city and click on your city. If you are from South India, Gujarat or Maharastra please click on Amavayant panchangam, and if your are from North India please click on poornimant panchangam. You will find Rahukalam, Yamagandam, Durmuhurtham, and Gulikai, Varjyam timings along with Abhijit Muhurtha and Amrit kala timings. We also provide information like local sunrise, sunset, Tithi, nakshatra, yoga, karana, sun's rasi, moon's rashi, moodyami of guru and shukra. We also have everyday chogadia and lagna table. To learn how to read panchanga please visit this link.
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